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Causes Of Chronic Kidney Disease

You have now learned about several different classes of medications, specifically those that lower blood pressure and reduce proteinuria. Yet under certain circumstances, these same medications can be harmful to the kidneys. Other classes of prescribed medication can also affect kidney function, including anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and medications used for the treatment of ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). Moreover, certain over-the-counter medications such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen can also affect kidney function.

Causes Of Chronic Kidney Disease

Some standard treatments can trigger an inflammatory reaction in the kidneys, and some can "stun" the kidneys. We will examine the possible effects and risks that certain imaging studies and procedures, as well as medications, have on kidney function.

Certain classes of medications can cause a type of nephritis, or inflammatory response, in the kidneys. We have discussed one type of nephritis in detail. The focus of this post is another type called interstitial (inter-sti-shull) nephritis. Here, the inflammatory response is not directed against the glomerulus, but other areas of the kidneys. In this post, we will examine certain classes of medications that can cause this type of reaction in the kidneys.
Antibiotics are extremely popular and are very commonly prescribed. Certain classes of antibiotics, including pencillins such as amoxicillin (Trimox); and a closely related drug class called cephalosporins (cef-ello-spor-ins) such as cephalexin (Keflex) and cef-urox-ime (Ceftin) can cause interstitial nephritis in certain individuals. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxozole (Bactrim) is usually prescribed for urinary tract infections and can cause this reaction, as well. In fact, any class of antibiotics can cause this type of inflammatory reaction, not just those described above.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSMDS) 

This class of medications, including the over-the-counter brands Motrin and Advil, as well as the prescription brands Celebrex and Naprosyn, can also induce a similar type of inflammatory reaction in the kidneys. Sometimes this reaction can be accompanied by a dramatic increase in proteinuria.

There is an irony here; these medications are used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions like arthritis, but they themselves can stimulate an inflammatory reaction in the kidneys. Because of their side-effect profile, especially concerning the kidneys, you should be careful in using this class of medication. We will be talking more about NSAIDS later, as they can affect the kidney function in multiple ways.
Proton-Pump Inhibitors (PPI)
PPIs are used to treat ulcers of the stomach and small intestine, as well as to treat gastroesophogeal reflux disease (usually referred to as GERD). Examples include pantoprazole (Protonix) and esomeprazole (Nexium). Commonly prescribed for people both in and out of the hospital, PPIs can cause an inflammatory reaction in the kidneys, even after the medication has been taken for a while.

The bisphosphonates (biss-phos-pho-nates) refer to a class of medications used to treat osteoporosis. They are also commonly used in people with cancer. Here I am referring to medications that need to be given through a vein, including pamidronate sodium (Aredia) and zoledronic acid (Zometa). Pamidronate sodium (Aredia) can trigger a type of inflammatory reaction causing the nephrotic syndrome and worsening kidney function. Zoledronic acid can also worsen kidney function. The usage and dosing of both medications need close monitoring if kidney disease is present. To find out more, you can check out Causes Of Chronic Kidney Disease.